Study the information about -ing and -ed clauses.
1. Some clauses can begin with -ing or -ed.
Do you know the man talking to Sally?
The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
2. We use -ing clauses when we want to say what somebody (or something) is (was) doing at a particular time.
Police investigating the crime are looking for three men.
I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
3. You may also use an -ing clause when you need to say what happens all the time.
The roads connecting two villages is very narrow.
Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T?
4. -ed clauses have a passive meaning.
The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
Injured and invited are past participle. Many past participles are irregular and do not end in -ed.
For example, stolen, fallen, written.
Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
You can also use left with the meaning ‘not used’.
We have eaten nearly all the sweets. There are only a few left.
5. We often use -ing and -ed clauses after there is/there was.
There were some children swimming in the lake.
Is there anyone waiting?